Disse datasettene fantes i WP før import

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Alle prosjekter

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                            [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:12:33.7395643
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                            [ProjectItems] => Array
                                (
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                            [ProjectItems] => Array
                                (
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                            [CreatedOn] => 2018-09-07T18:20:41.7333333
                            [ModifiedOn] => 2021-06-23T13:55:41.2655716
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                                (
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                            [ProjectItems] => Array
                                (
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                            [Name] => Industry Data 2.0 (SimaPro 9.2)
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                                (
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                    [11] => Array
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                            [Type] => Flow
                            [CreatedOn] => 2017-10-16T08:27:37.7566667
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                                (
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                            [Type] => Flow
                            [CreatedOn] => 2019-09-03T19:19:55.4099991
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                            [ProjectItems] => Array
                                (
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                            [CreatedOn] => 2017-10-17T08:56:27.1966667
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                            [ProjectItems] => Array
                                (
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                                (
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                                (
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                                (
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                )

            [Total] => 17
        )

    [Errors] => 
)

Alle prosjekter slutt

nameNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)

Rådata fra ecospold endpoint for prosjekt 807679b6-ab53-48e9-a526-020b975c2e96

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            [CreatedOn] => 2022-02-22T12:40:45.9636553
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Dinitrogen monoxide utslipp som reaksjon etter skoggjødsling: "Målrettet gjødsling av skog som Klimatiltak 5.1.3. (Nibio 2014)"
Utslipp av lystgass i norsk skog 2011 1600 kg
Antall dekar gjødslet skog i 2011 5844 dekar
Mengde lystgass per gjødslet dekar 0,273785079 kg/dekar
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                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name##
Sawlog; spruce; measured under bark; mechanical forestry, production mix; at forest road
##Reference flow##
1 m3, under bark
##System boundaries##
List of input processes:
Pre-commercial thinning (previously named Cleaning), Forwarding,
Pesticides, Final harvest,
Fertilizing, Planting, Road building, Road rebuilding,
Seed production, Seedling production, Soil scarification. All of these 11 processes use ecoinvent background process inputs, as well, and we are working on getting them published for easy reuse of this data set.
Road building. Harvest of forest and land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel.
Road rebuilding. Land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel.
Soil scarification. Machine use. Transport of machine and personnel between sites.
Planting. Seed and seedling production. Transport plants and personnel.
Pre-commerical thinning (previously "Cleaning"). Power sawing machine use. Transport of personnel.
Pesticide, spreading. Production of pesticide. Spreading with helicopter.
Fertilizing. Production of fertilizer. Transport of fertilizer from production on lorry. Spreading with helicopter. Emissions to air of
dinitrogen monoxide.
Final harvesting. Harvesting machine use. Transport of harvester between sites.
Forwarding. Forwarder including direct emissions, fuel production, production, maintenance, end-of-life of forwarder. Transport of forwarder between harvest areas. Transport of personnel to harvest areas.
##Wastes and end-of-life##
There are no wastes in the core process, upstream processes have waste treatment as in ecoinvent cut-off.
##Biogenic carbon##
Biogenic carbon flows are not included in the core LCI and must be added if relevant for the impact assessment.
##Use advice of the dataset##
If used for EN 15804+A1, additional flows in the LCI must be added for the energy and biogenic carbon. If used for EN 15804:+A2, land use must in addition also be added. Note: if importing into Nordic or German Excel, there is an issue with certain numbers turning into date, for instance 1.29 turning into January the first.
##Technological representativeness##
##Technology description##
Mechanical forestry with harvester and forwarder. Fossil source of diesel.
##Technology Quality level##
Very good
##Geographical representativeness##
##Location##
Norway
##Geographical representativeness description##
Representative for the most common harvesting in Norway for softwood. On the west coast of Norway, other harvesting such as with cables might be used. The fuel used in forwarder are dependent on the distance to the road and 500 meters are included, but could be shorter or longer.
##Geographical Quality level##
Good
##Time related representativeness##
##Reference year##
2017
##Time representativeness description##
Silviculture activities (fertilizer, Road building, Road rebuilding, Soil scarification, Planting, Cleaning,
Pesticide, spreading) based on 2017. Harvesting fuel use from 2009, but evaluated as representative for 2020.
##Time Quality Level##
Good
##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##
##LCI method principle##
Attributional. Based on ecoinvent cut-off.
##LCI allocation methods##
Economic allocation for all forestry processes except forwarding.
Allocation between sawlog and pulpwood has been adjusted to be in line with the requirements in EN 15804. This means economic allocation of silviculture operations and harvesting, but the forwarding is not allocated. It is assumed that the forwarding is not affected of the demand for pulpwood and it is therefore not part of the joint co-production. In silviculture and harvesting, this is assumed to be a joint co-production process. The data has been adjusted from volume allocation to economic allocation for silviculture and harvester as they have been assumed joint co-production. Forwarder are not assumed joint co-production, so this has an equal allocation based on volume. Adjustment of volume allocation to economic is by a factor of 1.3 for sawlog and 0.6 for pulpwood.
##Other comments on methods approaches##
The LCI procedures is with the aim to be used in foreground LCI modelling for EPD according to EN 15804. The inputs from nature are not included from the direct forest activities (land transformation and occupation, biogenic carbon and energy content, biomass). These must be added in a later stage of the LCI when necessary.
##Completeness##
##Cut off for mass or energy flows##
No cut-off has been applied when data has been available. Some purchased services and infrastructure might be left out.
##Infrastructure/capital goods##
Included in harvesting, forwarder and other transport systems. Building infrastructure are not included for plant production.
##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##
Forestry in Norway are based on the report by Timmermann & Dibdiakova (2013). Foreground activity data from Timmermann & Dibdiakova, but otherwise upstream from Ecoinvent v3.6. Silviculture activities based on data from Skogfrøverket, Statistics Norway and Landbruksdirektoratet with 2017 as reference year. Emissions of dinitrogen monoxide with forestry fertilizing are from “Målrettet gjødsling av skog som klimatiltak”, Nibio (2014).
##Data collection period##
2018
##Administrative Information##
##Data set generator##
Lars G. F. Tellnes,
Johann K. Næss
##Access and use restrictions##
Open. Send a mail to Silje Unander at sun(a)treteknisk . no for a CSV copy of the whole data set, that is, including the ecoinvent background processes.
##Version##
1
##
                    [Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Wood, Access_open
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Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)raw_tagsArray ( [1f7eb32f-daa2-4f9c-8d69-048803d36f5b] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [a2b19bfc-3673-4a13-869f-2843994d6382] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [ec1dba23-3ff5-401b-b504-5a2922178ed9] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [0d1571fe-4099-4278-a631-6f6f55ab264f] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [c6e43829-649a-4ffd-8dae-978f5eca4e7e] => Sector_Materials production / Wood, Access_open [ba38dd50-a71c-4d8c-91b3-9a98bcbb3050] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [a8c75e6d-c0db-435b-90e6-a55af3323e02] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [c9efc960-e977-4eb1-9398-b42b24ae48de] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [04ee2614-bb83-40af-8c00-bd4fea615278] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [e1164ec3-7c7f-4b36-bc4f-c6fb78476250] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [66a42ae8-6518-43c6-a6a6-d632ba4c1f39] => Sector_Materials production / Wood [1a7673e5-529c-4bc8-b280-f5966af1bd15] => Sector_Materials production / Wood ) raw_tags_end

Alle tags

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(
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    [1a7673e5-529c-4bc8-b280-f5966af1bd15] => Sector_Materials production / Wood
)
process:

Alle prosesser

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            [CreatedOn] => 2022-02-22T12:40:45.9636553
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                    [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography
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            [ModelingAndValidation] => Array
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    [1] => Array
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            [CreatedOn] => 2022-02-22T12:40:45.9636553
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                (
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                    [Name_BaseName] => Fertilizing, v2 {NO}
                    [GeneralComment] => Data sent from Landbruksdirektoratet (for 2017) with distribution for dominating species in fertilized stands.
Dinitrogen monoxide utslipp som reaksjon etter skoggjødsling: "Målrettet gjødsling av skog som Klimatiltak 5.1.3. (Nibio 2014)"
Utslipp av lystgass i norsk skog 2011 1600 kg
Antall dekar gjødslet skog i 2011 5844 dekar
Mengde lystgass per gjødslet dekar 0,273785079 kg/dekar
Gjødsling i skog Øst-Norge 2017 77 456 dekar. Totalt utslipp dinitrogen monixide = 21206,29
21206,29 / 7745,6 hektar = 2,737 kg
                    [Time_ReferenceYear] => 2022
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                    [Time_RepresentativenessDescription] => 5 years default
                    [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography
                    [Geography_LocationOfOperationSupplyOrProduction] => NO
                )

            [ModelingAndValidation] => Array
                (
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                    [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodPrinciple] => Attributional
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                    [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_PercentageSupplyOrProductionCovered] => 100
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                        (
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                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name##
Sawlog; spruce; measured under bark; mechanical forestry, production mix; at forest road
##Reference flow##
1 m3, under bark
##System boundaries##
List of input processes:
Pre-commercial thinning (previously named Cleaning), Forwarding,
Pesticides, Final harvest,
Fertilizing, Planting, Road building, Road rebuilding,
Seed production, Seedling production, Soil scarification. All of these 11 processes use ecoinvent background process inputs, as well, and we are working on getting them published for easy reuse of this data set.
Road building. Harvest of forest and land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel.
Road rebuilding. Land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel.
Soil scarification. Machine use. Transport of machine and personnel between sites.
Planting. Seed and seedling production. Transport plants and personnel.
Pre-commerical thinning (previously "Cleaning"). Power sawing machine use. Transport of personnel.
Pesticide, spreading. Production of pesticide. Spreading with helicopter.
Fertilizing. Production of fertilizer. Transport of fertilizer from production on lorry. Spreading with helicopter. Emissions to air of
dinitrogen monoxide.
Final harvesting. Harvesting machine use. Transport of harvester between sites.
Forwarding. Forwarder including direct emissions, fuel production, production, maintenance, end-of-life of forwarder. Transport of forwarder between harvest areas. Transport of personnel to harvest areas.
##Wastes and end-of-life##
There are no wastes in the core process, upstream processes have waste treatment as in ecoinvent cut-off.
##Biogenic carbon##
Biogenic carbon flows are not included in the core LCI and must be added if relevant for the impact assessment.
##Use advice of the dataset##
If used for EN 15804+A1, additional flows in the LCI must be added for the energy and biogenic carbon. If used for EN 15804:+A2, land use must in addition also be added. Note: if importing into Nordic or German Excel, there is an issue with certain numbers turning into date, for instance 1.29 turning into January the first.
##Technological representativeness##
##Technology description##
Mechanical forestry with harvester and forwarder. Fossil source of diesel.
##Technology Quality level##
Very good
##Geographical representativeness##
##Location##
Norway
##Geographical representativeness description##
Representative for the most common harvesting in Norway for softwood. On the west coast of Norway, other harvesting such as with cables might be used. The fuel used in forwarder are dependent on the distance to the road and 500 meters are included, but could be shorter or longer.
##Geographical Quality level##
Good
##Time related representativeness##
##Reference year##
2017
##Time representativeness description##
Silviculture activities (fertilizer, Road building, Road rebuilding, Soil scarification, Planting, Cleaning,
Pesticide, spreading) based on 2017. Harvesting fuel use from 2009, but evaluated as representative for 2020.
##Time Quality Level##
Good
##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##
##LCI method principle##
Attributional. Based on ecoinvent cut-off.
##LCI allocation methods##
Economic allocation for all forestry processes except forwarding.
Allocation between sawlog and pulpwood has been adjusted to be in line with the requirements in EN 15804. This means economic allocation of silviculture operations and harvesting, but the forwarding is not allocated. It is assumed that the forwarding is not affected of the demand for pulpwood and it is therefore not part of the joint co-production. In silviculture and harvesting, this is assumed to be a joint co-production process. The data has been adjusted from volume allocation to economic allocation for silviculture and harvester as they have been assumed joint co-production. Forwarder are not assumed joint co-production, so this has an equal allocation based on volume. Adjustment of volume allocation to economic is by a factor of 1.3 for sawlog and 0.6 for pulpwood.
##Other comments on methods approaches##
The LCI procedures is with the aim to be used in foreground LCI modelling for EPD according to EN 15804. The inputs from nature are not included from the direct forest activities (land transformation and occupation, biogenic carbon and energy content, biomass). These must be added in a later stage of the LCI when necessary.
##Completeness##
##Cut off for mass or energy flows##
No cut-off has been applied when data has been available. Some purchased services and infrastructure might be left out.
##Infrastructure/capital goods##
Included in harvesting, forwarder and other transport systems. Building infrastructure are not included for plant production.
##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##
Forestry in Norway are based on the report by Timmermann & Dibdiakova (2013). Foreground activity data from Timmermann & Dibdiakova, but otherwise upstream from Ecoinvent v3.6. Silviculture activities based on data from Skogfrøverket, Statistics Norway and Landbruksdirektoratet with 2017 as reference year. Emissions of dinitrogen monoxide with forestry fertilizing are from “Målrettet gjødsling av skog som klimatiltak”, Nibio (2014).
##Data collection period##
2018
##Administrative Information##
##Data set generator##
Lars G. F. Tellnes,
Johann K. Næss
##Access and use restrictions##
Open. Send a mail to Silje Unander at sun(a)treteknisk . no for a CSV copy of the whole data set, that is, including the ecoinvent background processes.
##Version##
1
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                                    [ApprovalOfOverallCompliance] => Not_defined
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            [CreatedOn] => 2022-02-22T12:40:45.9636553
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Renamed from Pecticide, spreading, {NO}. Subprocess of "Forestry, sawlog, spruce, at forest road, NO."
##
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            [CreatedOn] => 2022-02-22T12:40:45.9636553
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            [ModelingAndValidation] => Array
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                        (
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                    [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array
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                                    [NomenclatureCompliance] => Not_defined
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                    [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array
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                    [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array
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spruce; measured under bark; mechanical forestry, production mix; at forest roadexists: 2117Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / Wood, Access_openNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / Wood, Access_openNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)existsthis exists. 2117process name: Final harvest {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Road rebuilding {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Pesticides {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Road building {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Seedling production {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Seed production {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniedprocess name: Soil scarification {NO}exists: Norsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)has tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)save_tagsSector_Materials production / WoodNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)does not existsNorsk Treteknisk Institutt (sagtømmer, renset)(Forestry, sawlog, spruce at forest road, NO)accessdeniednameNORSUS (3.8)

Rådata fra ecospold endpoint for prosjekt a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, low voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for low voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Transformation from high via medium to low voltage is included. Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represent low voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level. Ecoinvent 3.8 has been used for the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

CO2 from upgrading of biogas; from food waste and manure; production, distribution, and use

##Reference flow##

1 kg

 

##System boundaries##

CO2 from upgrading of biogas is considered as recyclable material, in line with the methodology of ecoinvent database cut off by classification. This means that CO2 is seen as a recyclable waste flow from production of biogas, and only the distribution and use phase is included in the inventory.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

The inventory only considers CO2 used as a product, there are no waste streams in the system

 

##Biogenic carbon##

CO2 is emitted as biogenic CO2 during use phase, and is reported separately in the LCI using biogenic substances.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used when modelling the use of CO2 from upgrading of biogas distributed in a pipeline. The dataset does not include compression of the CO2.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

1 kg CO2 produced at an anaerobic digestion plant, transported in pipeline.

##Technology Quality level##

Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

The biogas facility is located in the Vestfold and Telemark county. The CO2 is used in a greenhouse located in close proximity with the biogas plant

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2018

##Time representativeness description##

Report was published in 2020.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

CO2 is considered as a recyclable flow from production of biogas. Impacts from anaerobic digestion is attributed to production of biogas and digestate, or to the organic waste treatment. Upgrading of the biogas is attributed to biogas production and is considered outside the system boundaries of CO2 as a product.

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-off by classification, version 3.8 was used as background database.

 

 

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Piping infrastructure in distribution of CO2 is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

 

##Data collection period##

2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Kari-Anne Lyng, NORSUS

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Lyng, K.-A., Saxegård, S., 2020, Livsløpsvurdering av produktene og tjenestene til Den Magiske Fabrikken. OR.23.20. NORSUS, Kråkerøy. Available from: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/livslopsvurdering-av-produktene-og-tjenestene-til-den-magiske-fabrikken/ (In Norwegian)

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Heat, for district heating, Norwegian production mix, without waste incineration or ambient heat, at plant

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Production mix of district heat in Norway in 2021, based on information on energy carriers from Norsk Fjernvarme, minus heat from waste combustion and ambient heat from industry. The activity starts with acquisition of energy carriers, i.e., acquisition and transport of fossil oil and gas, harvesting and transport of woody biomass, and production, transformation from high to low voltage and transmission of electricity. The activity stops at district heat production facility (i.e. distribution is not included).

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used to model the production mix of district heat that is avoided by using heat from waste combustion or ambient heat from industry. Hence, those two energy carriers are removed from the average production mix of heat for district heating, such that they do not replace themselves. This dataset represents the district heat production mix in Norway in the year 2020. Data on heat production and share of different energy carriers are collected from www.fjernkontrollen.no. ecoinvent 3.8 allocation, cut-off by classification is used for the background data. 

 

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Average technology for production and transmission of electricity in Norway. Heat from the other sources based on average European technologies. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

Total heat production and share of sources are representative for Norway. Background data are representative for European technology.

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2021

##Time representativeness description##

Annual production.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Allocation cut-off by classification in background data.  

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The energy carriers are given by Norsk Fjernvarme. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology. Heat from incineration of waste and ambient heat from industry are removed from the replaced heat, so that they do not replace themselves.   

##Data collection period##

2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ellen Soldal

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Norsk Fjernvarme (2022). Fjernkontrollen.no. [online] Available at https://www.fjernkontrollen.no/ Webpage. Access date: 27.09.2022.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Household waste collection, residual waste, to residual waste sorting facility

##Reference flow##

1 kg

##System boundaries##

The process includes the collection of 1 kg residual waste and end with the delivery of the waste at the waste bunker of the residual waste sorting facility. Regarding the production of biogas used as fuel, the system starts at the biogas upgrading facility.

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment and maintenance of the infrastructure are included in the dataset. Further treatment of the collected waste itself is not included in the dataset

##Biogenic carbon##

Biogenic emissions from the use of biogas are accounted for by using a “biogenic” substance such that these can be distinguished from fossil emissions by the impact assessment method.

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used to model the impact from residual waste collection in Romerike, Norway. Since residual waste is going to a residual waste sorting facility, only glass & metal and paper & cardboard are collected separately. Collection of these waste fraction is not included in the dataset. Ecoinvent 3.8 is used to model the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

77% of the residual waste is collect by waste collection vehicles on biogas, 23% is collected by diesel vehicles. Direct emissions from biogas are modelled using natural gas emission profiles as proxy, but these are adjusted to the lower methane content of biogas.

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

The dataset is representative for the Romerike district in south-eastern Norway

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2016

##Time representativeness description##

The waste collection routes, amount of residual waste collected, and amount of diesel / biogas used are from 2016 and are collected from Callewaert (2017)

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

Besides the allocation principles carried out by ecoinvent cut-off by classification, no other allocation methods are used

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure (road, cars, etc.) are included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

None

##Data collection period##

2017

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Pieter Callewaert

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Callewaert, P. (2017). Analysing the sustainability performance and critical improvement factors of urban municipal waste systems. (Masters). NTNU, Trondheim. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2454900

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Bark extract; without water, in 98% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant

 

##Reference flow##

1 kg dry matter

 

##System boundaries##

The system includes all upstream processes (extraction, transport and refinement of raw materials and energy) and processes taking place at the biorefinery. Energy and resource use in offices is included. Work travels and commuting to work is not included. Emissions from combustion of waste for steam production are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, according to the polluter pays principle.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Treatment of waste is included. Recycling credits outside the biorefinery are not included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Uptake and emissions of biogenic carbon are included.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The aim of the dataset is to document the environmental properties for a product under development. The product was developed in the BACS project (short for BioActive Compounds from Spruce), where the underlying idea was to develop sustainable value added products, processes and applications for compounds extracted from Norway spruce that are bioactive or will stimulate and improve the bioactivity of other compounds in formulations. Preliminary LCA results were used as input to the innovation process by identifying hotspots. The dataset was developed in the WP 8 work package of the BACS research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (consortium agreement no. 295501). Borregaard was the project owner. Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-off by classification, version 3.8 was used as background database.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Modelling of the foreground system of the biorefinery is based on specific data from Borregaard Sarpsborg, Norway. For the main biorefinery (processing of bark for use as input to the BACS biorefinery system), real data for the full-scale biorefinery have been used, hence the data represent the exact technology. For the BACS biorefinery system (processing bark to bark extract), calculated data based on theoretical information, estimates and knowledge from similar processes at the main biorefinery have been used. Data for the input chemicals and processes upstream the main biorefinery at Borregaard Sarpsborg have been found in generic databases.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Foreground data are specific for the product dataset (Borregaard biorefinery, Sarpsborg, Norway). As far as possible, background data representative for Norwegian conditions have been used.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

Specific data are from 2019 and 2021.

 

##Time representativeness description##

Annual data have been used for the main biorefiney, except for steam, where the input of electricity and natural gas was averaged over a 7-year period. For the BACS biorefinery system, hourly data have been used. Data for production of other raw materials, energy, transport and waste treatment options have been found in the ecoinvent database. Choosing the most correct technology has been prioritised over newer data.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Very good.

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

For generic data, ecoinvent’s ‘allocation, cut-off by classification’ database have been used. For specific data at the biorefinery, allocation has been avoided as far as possible by analysing the processes on a detailed level. When necessary, energy allocation (based on dry matter content (DM)) has been used at the biorefinery.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Economic allocation was found unsuitable because several of the allocations have included products that have no market value, and because over time, no product in the main biorefinery acts as the single driving force of the system.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% coverage

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Included

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

All results and allocations have been based on dry matter (DM) in the internal flows and final products. Ethanol has been accounted for as DM in both internal flows and final products. For steam input and output, data from the main biorefinery have been used (assumed as ‘large’ compared with the BACS biorefinery system, hence not affected by the consumption in the BACS biorefinery system). Delivery of steam from the BACS biorefinery system back to the main biorefinery is included as avoided burdens.

 

##Data collection period##

2020-2022

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Modahl, I. S. and E. Soldal (2021). The 2019 LCA of products from Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Report no OR.14.21. Link: https://norsus.no/en/publikasjon/the-2019-lca-of-products-from-borregaard-sarpsborg/. Fredrikstad, NORSUS.

 

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2022): Sustainability of BACS products (BioActive Compounds from Spruce). Report no. OR.17.22 (confidential). Fredrikstad, Norway.

 

##

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NorEnviro EI3.8 System [Type] => System [GeneralComment] => En test for å se om jeg får samme resultat som EPD fra O-LCA-analysene KAL 20.01.2020 PC 27.09.22. Based on EI 3.8 ) [Id] => 4361f97c-9a06-4830-92a7-4cc2119aeffd [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [7] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => NorEnviro Den Magiske Fabrikken per tonn matavfall System [GeographyId] => eaee0a0f-a7a2-4fb4-9531-f1e156948813 [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => eaee0a0f-a7a2-4fb4-9531-f1e156948813 [LibraryId] => eaee0a0f-a7a2-4fb4-9531-f1e156948813 [Name] => Unspecified ) [ReferenceProductId] => 22051412-098b-4f0d-ba43-a9393f305e52 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 22051412-098b-4f0d-ba43-a9393f305e52 [LibraryId] => 22051412-098b-4f0d-ba43-a9393f305e52 [Name] => NorEnviro Den Magiske Fabrikken per tonn matavfall System ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:01:39.5819231 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:01:39.5819231 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => a96ffe18-d162-452f-a72c-6d5daa4e7a50 [ActivityName] => NorEnviro Den Magiske Fabrikken per tonn matavfall System [Type] => System [GeneralComment] => Behandling av 1 tonn matavfall fra husholdninger på Den Magiske Fabrikken. Har nullet ut alt som ikke er forbehandling og behanding. 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##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, high voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for high voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

These datasets represent high voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

[Tags] => Sector_Energy carriers and technologies / Electricity ) [Id] => df0880d0-2aaa-4c37-96a0-9960acde7699 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [9] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 27a84fce-82fd-4ade-a65f-543f302e2e28 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 27a84fce-82fd-4ade-a65f-543f302e2e28 [LibraryId] => 27a84fce-82fd-4ade-a65f-543f302e2e28 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:03:25.7495503 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:43:43.7054395 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => e814ca99-4f6d-4ed6-84e8-bf1a65595e98 [ActivityName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [Type] => System [GeneralComment] =>

##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, medium voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for medium voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Transformation from high to medium voltage is included. Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represents medium voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level. Ecoinvent 3.8 has been used for the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

[Tags] => Sector_Energy carriers and technologies / Electricity ) [Id] => d02e52a5-565e-41ff-a4f3-d00b88e38537 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [12] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => Knot extract; without water, in 60% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => c90f39e1-5869-4fdc-a42a-f422e7ece361 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => c90f39e1-5869-4fdc-a42a-f422e7ece361 [LibraryId] => c90f39e1-5869-4fdc-a42a-f422e7ece361 [Name] => Knot extract; without water, in 60% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T10:59:24.0805547 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:45:36.3836804 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => 10688c43-e34e-4e10-9e47-d49c77fb2942 [ActivityName] => Knot extract; without water, in 60% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant [Type] => System [GeneralComment] =>

##General Information##

##Product name##

Knot extract; without water, in 60% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant

 

##Reference flow##

1 kg dry matter

 

##System boundaries##

The system includes all upstream processes (extraction, transport and refinement of raw materials and energy) and processes taking place at the biorefinery. Energy and resource use in offices is included. Work travels and commuting to work is not included. Emissions from combustion of waste for steam production are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, according to the polluter pays principle.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Treatment of waste is included. Recycling credits outside the biorefinery are not included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Uptake and emissions of biogenic carbon are included.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The aim of the dataset is to document the environmental properties for a product under development. The product was developed in the BACS project (short for BioActive Compounds from Spruce), where the underlying idea was to develop sustainable value added products, processes and applications for compounds extracted from Norway spruce that are bioactive or will stimulate and improve the bioactivity of other compounds in formulations. Preliminary LCA results were used as input to the innovation process by identifying hotspots. The dataset was developed in the WP 8 work package of the BACS research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (consortium agreement no. 295501). Borregaard was the project owner. Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-of by classification, version 3.8 was used as backgrund database.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Modelling of the foreground system of the biorefinery is based on specific data from Borregaard Sarpsborg, Norway. For the main biorefinery (processing of knots for use as input to the BACS biorefinery system), real data for the full-scale biorefinery have been used, hence the data represent the exact technology. For the BACS biorefinery system (processing knots to knot extract), calculated data based on theoretical information, estimates and knowledge from similar processes at the main biorefinery have been used. Data for the input chemicals and processes upstream the main biorefinery at Borregaard Sarpsborg have been found in generic databases.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Foreground data are specific for the product dataset (Borregaard biorefinery, Sarpsborg, Norway). As far as possible, background data representative for Norwegian conditions have been used.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

Specific data are from 2019 and 2021.

 

##Time representativeness description##

Annual data have been used for the main biorefiney, except for steam, where the input of electricity and natural gas was averaged over a 7-year period. For the BACS biorefinery system, hourly data have been used. Data for production of other raw materials, energy, transport and waste treatment options have been found in the ecoinvent database. Choosing the most correct technology has been prioritised over newer data.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Very good.

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

For generic data, ecoinvent’s ‘allocation, cut-off by classification’ database have been used. For specific data at the biorefinery, allocation has been avoided as far as possible by analysing the processes on a detailed level. When necessary, energy allocation (based on dry matter content (DM)) has been used at the biorefinery.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Economic allocation was found unsuitable because several of the allocations have included products that have no market value, and because over time, no product in the main biorefinery acts as the single driving force of the system.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% coverage

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Included

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

All results and allocations have been based on dry matter (DM) in the internal flows and final products. Ethanol has been accounted for as DM in both internal flows and final products. For steam input and output, data from the main biorefinery have been used (assumed as ‘large’ compared with the BACS biorefinery system, hence not affected by the consumption in the BACS biorefinery system). Delivery of steam from the BACS biorefinery system back to the main biorefinery is included as avoided burdens.

 

##Data collection period##

2020-2022

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Modahl, I. S. and E. Soldal (2021). The 2019 LCA of products from Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Report no OR.14.21. Link: https://norsus.no/en/publikasjon/the-2019-lca-of-products-from-borregaard-sarpsborg/. Fredrikstad, NORSUS.

 

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2022): Sustainability of BACS products (BioActive Compounds from Spruce). Report no. OR.17.22 (confidential). Fredrikstad, Norway.

 

##

[Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Organic chemicals ) [Id] => 10688c43-e34e-4e10-9e47-d49c77fb2942 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [13] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => ad9d4299-3ad2-4cc1-8bcc-0fbb7d4fb747 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => ad9d4299-3ad2-4cc1-8bcc-0fbb7d4fb747 [LibraryId] => ad9d4299-3ad2-4cc1-8bcc-0fbb7d4fb747 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:03:25.7495503 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:46:01.0776219 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => 0edd20a7-7152-4404-9cbe-eea161bce560 [ActivityName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [Type] => System [GeneralComment] =>

##General Information##

##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state

##Reference flow## 1kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## Norway

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 – 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

[Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Other materials ) [Id] => 0edd20a7-7152-4404-9cbe-eea161bce560 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [14] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road [GeographyId] => 0d751636-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 0d751636-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 0d751636-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => FR ) [ReferenceProductId] => 6dfd4587-7546-47c6-8208-ebeef5d5065d [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 6dfd4587-7546-47c6-8208-ebeef5d5065d [LibraryId] => 6dfd4587-7546-47c6-8208-ebeef5d5065d [Name] => Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:05:50.3535319 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:46:20.6352186 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => ece2b1b0-324b-4d53-9e9b-ef5319bc9ffb [ActivityName] => Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road [Type] => System [GeneralComment] =>

##General Information##

##Product name##

Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road

##Reference flow##

1 kg DM

 

##System boundaries##

The dataset represents manual harvest of beech in France. The dataset covers stand establishment (production of seedlings in an unheated greenhouse and planting), tending and cleaning, thinning, manual final harvest and chipping. Construction and maintenance of infrastructure, like machinery and forest roads, are included. The system ends with wood chips at forest road. The activities over one rotation period are included. 

The activity starts with site preparation assuming establishment of the forest via planting, including seedling production and covers all process related to forest management, including site preparation, planting, tending, young growth tending, clearing, thinning, and harvesting operations including the processing of wood fuel to chips, bundles and chopped wood (logs for energy) over one rotation period. It also covers the maintenance and construction of forest roads. This activity ends with the assortments at the forest road and includes eventual drying before transportation.

##Wastes and end-of-life##

 

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biogenic carbon included as resource input from nature (uptake of carbon dioxide in air)

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The dataset should be used to analyze the impact from beech wood chips that originate from thinning operations in France. Measured as dry mass

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

For the chipping in the stand, a productivity of 25 m3 bulked/PMH is assumed (based on Cremer & Velazquesz). For wood chips chipped in the stand, a productivity of the forwarding of 70 Sm3 bulked/PMH with a diesel consumption of 9.5 l/h of the forwarder is assumed. 24.4% thinning (mechanical) and 76.6% (manual) final harvest

 

##Technology Quality level##Fair

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## France (FR)

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

The dataset is based on dataset on harvest of hardwood in Germany from Wernet et al. (2016). The dataset has been adjusted to reflect beech forests, and beech forest management in France. The adjustments include changes in the harvesting methods to mirror the relative share of manual harvesting vs mechanized harvesters in the eastern parts on France, the allocation between clear-cut and thinning, and the area used for different practices (Pelletier, 2017).  

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Fair

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2017

 

##Time representativeness description## Data represent 2017 for the specifications of French beech management while original ecoinvent data are largely based on a data source from 2009. Data are still considered representative due to small developments in forest management and harvest operations.

 

 

##Time Quality Level##

Fair

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Allocation based on mass.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

All known inputs are included.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Construction and maintenance of roads and machinery are included

 

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

In communication with French Institute of Technology for Forest-based and Furniture Sectors (FCBA), it was recommended to use the ecoinvent (v3.8) dataset for beech from Germany as representative for beech from the eastern parts of France. The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data and is widely used in Europe. The data set “hardwood forestry, beech, sustainable forest management” was selected. This dataset covers the production and harvesting of 1 m3 of stemwood, beech, solid, under bark, plus the relative share of energy wood from slash from sustainable forest management as the prevailing management practices in Germany (Wernet et al., 2016). Changes were made to allocation principles, harvesting regimes, and area used to reflect French beech forestry (Pelletier, 2017).

##Data collection period##

2017 - 2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Andreas Brekke

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Cremer, T. and B. Velazques-Marti (2007): Evaluation of two harvesting systems for the supply of woodchips in Norway spurce forest affected by bark beetle. Croation Journal of Forest Engineering, 28(2): 145-155.

Pelletier, C. (2017). Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie. Université de Lorraine, Retrieved from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01765854/document (2017LORR0331)

Wernet, G., Bauer, C., Steubing, B., Reinhard, J., Moreno-Ruiz, E., & Weidema, B. (2016). The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(9), 1218-1230. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8

##

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"##General Information##

##Product name##

Heat, for district heating, Norwegian production mix, at plant

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Production mix of district heat in Norway in 2021, based on information on energy carriers from Norsk Fjernvarme. The activity starts with acquisition of energy carriers, i.e., waste reception at gate, acquisition and transport of fossil oil and gas, harvesting and transport of woody biomass, and production, transformation from high to low voltage and transmission of electricity. The activity stops at district heat production facility (i.e. distribution is not included).

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represents the district heat production mix in Norway in the year 2021. Data on heat production and share of different energy carriers are collected from www.fjernkontrollen.no. ecoinvent 3.8 allocation, cut-off by classification is used for the background data. 

 

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Average technology for production and transmission of electricity in Norway. Heat from the other sources based on average European technologies. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For ambient heat, heat pump is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

Total heat production and share of sources are representative for Norway. Background data are representative for European technology.

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2021

##Time representativeness description##

Annual production.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Allocation cut-off by classification in background data.  

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The energy carriers are given by Norsk Fjernvarme. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For ambient heat, heat pump is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

##Data collection period##

2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ellen Soldal

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Norsk Fjernvarme (2022). Fjernkontrollen.no. [online] Available at https://www.fjernkontrollen.no/ Webpage. Access date: 27.09.2022.

##

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Alle tags

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process:

Alle prosesser

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            [Name] => Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, low voltage, to consumer
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##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, low voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for low voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Transformation from high via medium to low voltage is included. Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represent low voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level. Ecoinvent 3.8 has been used for the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

CO2 from upgrading of biogas; from food waste and manure; production, distribution, and use

##Reference flow##

1 kg

 

##System boundaries##

CO2 from upgrading of biogas is considered as recyclable material, in line with the methodology of ecoinvent database cut off by classification. This means that CO2 is seen as a recyclable waste flow from production of biogas, and only the distribution and use phase is included in the inventory.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

The inventory only considers CO2 used as a product, there are no waste streams in the system

 

##Biogenic carbon##

CO2 is emitted as biogenic CO2 during use phase, and is reported separately in the LCI using biogenic substances.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used when modelling the use of CO2 from upgrading of biogas distributed in a pipeline. The dataset does not include compression of the CO2.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

1 kg CO2 produced at an anaerobic digestion plant, transported in pipeline.

##Technology Quality level##

Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

The biogas facility is located in the Vestfold and Telemark county. The CO2 is used in a greenhouse located in close proximity with the biogas plant

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2018

##Time representativeness description##

Report was published in 2020.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

CO2 is considered as a recyclable flow from production of biogas. Impacts from anaerobic digestion is attributed to production of biogas and digestate, or to the organic waste treatment. Upgrading of the biogas is attributed to biogas production and is considered outside the system boundaries of CO2 as a product.

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-off by classification, version 3.8 was used as background database.

 

 

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Piping infrastructure in distribution of CO2 is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

 

##Data collection period##

2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Kari-Anne Lyng, NORSUS

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Lyng, K.-A., Saxegård, S., 2020, Livsløpsvurdering av produktene og tjenestene til Den Magiske Fabrikken. OR.23.20. NORSUS, Kråkerøy. Available from: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/livslopsvurdering-av-produktene-og-tjenestene-til-den-magiske-fabrikken/ (In Norwegian)

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Heat, for district heating, Norwegian production mix, without waste incineration or ambient heat, at plant

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Production mix of district heat in Norway in 2021, based on information on energy carriers from Norsk Fjernvarme, minus heat from waste combustion and ambient heat from industry. The activity starts with acquisition of energy carriers, i.e., acquisition and transport of fossil oil and gas, harvesting and transport of woody biomass, and production, transformation from high to low voltage and transmission of electricity. The activity stops at district heat production facility (i.e. distribution is not included).

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used to model the production mix of district heat that is avoided by using heat from waste combustion or ambient heat from industry. Hence, those two energy carriers are removed from the average production mix of heat for district heating, such that they do not replace themselves. This dataset represents the district heat production mix in Norway in the year 2020. Data on heat production and share of different energy carriers are collected from www.fjernkontrollen.no. ecoinvent 3.8 allocation, cut-off by classification is used for the background data. 

 

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Average technology for production and transmission of electricity in Norway. Heat from the other sources based on average European technologies. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

Total heat production and share of sources are representative for Norway. Background data are representative for European technology.

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2021

##Time representativeness description##

Annual production.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Allocation cut-off by classification in background data.  

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The energy carriers are given by Norsk Fjernvarme. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology. Heat from incineration of waste and ambient heat from industry are removed from the replaced heat, so that they do not replace themselves.   

##Data collection period##

2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ellen Soldal

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Norsk Fjernvarme (2022). Fjernkontrollen.no. [online] Available at https://www.fjernkontrollen.no/ Webpage. Access date: 27.09.2022.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Household waste collection, residual waste, to residual waste sorting facility

##Reference flow##

1 kg

##System boundaries##

The process includes the collection of 1 kg residual waste and end with the delivery of the waste at the waste bunker of the residual waste sorting facility. Regarding the production of biogas used as fuel, the system starts at the biogas upgrading facility.

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment and maintenance of the infrastructure are included in the dataset. Further treatment of the collected waste itself is not included in the dataset

##Biogenic carbon##

Biogenic emissions from the use of biogas are accounted for by using a “biogenic” substance such that these can be distinguished from fossil emissions by the impact assessment method.

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset should be used to model the impact from residual waste collection in Romerike, Norway. Since residual waste is going to a residual waste sorting facility, only glass & metal and paper & cardboard are collected separately. Collection of these waste fraction is not included in the dataset. Ecoinvent 3.8 is used to model the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

77% of the residual waste is collect by waste collection vehicles on biogas, 23% is collected by diesel vehicles. Direct emissions from biogas are modelled using natural gas emission profiles as proxy, but these are adjusted to the lower methane content of biogas.

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

The dataset is representative for the Romerike district in south-eastern Norway

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2016

##Time representativeness description##

The waste collection routes, amount of residual waste collected, and amount of diesel / biogas used are from 2016 and are collected from Callewaert (2017)

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

Besides the allocation principles carried out by ecoinvent cut-off by classification, no other allocation methods are used

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure (road, cars, etc.) are included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

None

##Data collection period##

2017

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Pieter Callewaert

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Callewaert, P. (2017). Analysing the sustainability performance and critical improvement factors of urban municipal waste systems. (Masters). NTNU, Trondheim. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2454900

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Bark extract; without water, in 98% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant

 

##Reference flow##

1 kg dry matter

 

##System boundaries##

The system includes all upstream processes (extraction, transport and refinement of raw materials and energy) and processes taking place at the biorefinery. Energy and resource use in offices is included. Work travels and commuting to work is not included. Emissions from combustion of waste for steam production are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, according to the polluter pays principle.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Treatment of waste is included. Recycling credits outside the biorefinery are not included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Uptake and emissions of biogenic carbon are included.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The aim of the dataset is to document the environmental properties for a product under development. The product was developed in the BACS project (short for BioActive Compounds from Spruce), where the underlying idea was to develop sustainable value added products, processes and applications for compounds extracted from Norway spruce that are bioactive or will stimulate and improve the bioactivity of other compounds in formulations. Preliminary LCA results were used as input to the innovation process by identifying hotspots. The dataset was developed in the WP 8 work package of the BACS research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (consortium agreement no. 295501). Borregaard was the project owner. Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-off by classification, version 3.8 was used as background database.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Modelling of the foreground system of the biorefinery is based on specific data from Borregaard Sarpsborg, Norway. For the main biorefinery (processing of bark for use as input to the BACS biorefinery system), real data for the full-scale biorefinery have been used, hence the data represent the exact technology. For the BACS biorefinery system (processing bark to bark extract), calculated data based on theoretical information, estimates and knowledge from similar processes at the main biorefinery have been used. Data for the input chemicals and processes upstream the main biorefinery at Borregaard Sarpsborg have been found in generic databases.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Foreground data are specific for the product dataset (Borregaard biorefinery, Sarpsborg, Norway). As far as possible, background data representative for Norwegian conditions have been used.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

Specific data are from 2019 and 2021.

 

##Time representativeness description##

Annual data have been used for the main biorefiney, except for steam, where the input of electricity and natural gas was averaged over a 7-year period. For the BACS biorefinery system, hourly data have been used. Data for production of other raw materials, energy, transport and waste treatment options have been found in the ecoinvent database. Choosing the most correct technology has been prioritised over newer data.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Very good.

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

For generic data, ecoinvent’s ‘allocation, cut-off by classification’ database have been used. For specific data at the biorefinery, allocation has been avoided as far as possible by analysing the processes on a detailed level. When necessary, energy allocation (based on dry matter content (DM)) has been used at the biorefinery.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Economic allocation was found unsuitable because several of the allocations have included products that have no market value, and because over time, no product in the main biorefinery acts as the single driving force of the system.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% coverage

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Included

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

All results and allocations have been based on dry matter (DM) in the internal flows and final products. Ethanol has been accounted for as DM in both internal flows and final products. For steam input and output, data from the main biorefinery have been used (assumed as ‘large’ compared with the BACS biorefinery system, hence not affected by the consumption in the BACS biorefinery system). Delivery of steam from the BACS biorefinery system back to the main biorefinery is included as avoided burdens.

 

##Data collection period##

2020-2022

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Modahl, I. S. and E. Soldal (2021). The 2019 LCA of products from Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Report no OR.14.21. Link: https://norsus.no/en/publikasjon/the-2019-lca-of-products-from-borregaard-sarpsborg/. Fredrikstad, NORSUS.

 

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2022): Sustainability of BACS products (BioActive Compounds from Spruce). Report no. OR.17.22 (confidential). Fredrikstad, Norway.

 

##

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Har nullet ut alt som ikke er forbehandling og behanding. KAL 26.09.2022 ran with ecoinvet 3.8 as background, some obsolate (S) processes... not changed. 27.9.22 [Time_ReferenceYear] => 2022 [Time_DataSetValidUntil] => 2027 [Time_RepresentativenessDescription] => 5 years default [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography [Geography_LocationOfOperationSupplyOrProduction] => Unspecified ) [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( [LCIMethodAndAllocation_TypeOfDataSet] => Unit_process_single_operation [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodPrinciple] => Attributional [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodApproaches] => Array ( [Not_applicable] => Not applicable ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_ReferencesToDataSource] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - compliance (non-Process) ) ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_PercentageSupplyOrProductionCovered] => 100 [Completeness_CompletenessProductModel] => No_statement [Completeness_ElementaryFlows] => Array ( ) [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [QualityCompliance] => Not_defined [NomenclatureCompliance] => Not_defined [MethodologicalCompliance] => Not_defined [ReviewCompliance] => Not_defined [DocumentationCompliance] => Not_defined [ReferenceToComplianceSystem] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) [ApprovalOfOverallCompliance] => Not_defined ) ) ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [CommissionerAndGoal_ReferenceToCommissioner] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetUseApproval] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [LibraryId] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [Name] => No official approval by producer or operator ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_DateOfLastRevision] => 2022-09-27T11:01:39.5819231 [PublicationAndOwnership_CopyRight] => 1 [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_LicenceType] => Other [DataEntryBy_TimeStamp] => 2022-09-27T11:01:39.5819231 [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetFormat] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [LibraryId] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToOwnershipOfDataSet] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [Id] => a96ffe18-d162-452f-a72c-6d5daa4e7a50 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [8] => Array ( [ProjectId] => a17a6535-d33d-4416-b1b6-76d2193678ff [Name] => Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, high voltage, to consumer [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 2477d6e0-38ee-4ad2-b392-b6a509b3f409 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 2477d6e0-38ee-4ad2-b392-b6a509b3f409 [LibraryId] => 2477d6e0-38ee-4ad2-b392-b6a509b3f409 [Name] => Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, high voltage, to consumer ) [CreatedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:02:31.3171832 [ModifiedOn] => 2022-09-27T11:43:20.2266653 [ProcessInformation] => Array ( [UUID] => df0880d0-2aaa-4c37-96a0-9960acde7699 [Name_BaseName] => Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, high voltage, to consumer [GeneralComment] =>

##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, high voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for high voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

These datasets represent high voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state

##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## NO

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway.

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Electricity; Norwegian consumption mix, medium voltage, to consumer

 

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Consumption mixes for medium voltage electricity used in Norway in 2020, based on high voltage electricity mix given by NVE (2021) (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). This high voltage mix includes electricity production in Norway and in the countries Norway exchanges electricity with (Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland and Russia).

 

Transformation from high to medium voltage is included. Distribution network, direct emissions to air (sulfur hexafluoride, dinitrogen monoxide and methane) and electricity losses are accounted for, using ecoinvent data.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Waste treatment is included in the background processes. Market processes for end-of-life treatment of infrastructure have been used. Cut-off modelling has been used, and no recycling credits have been included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biological methane emissions from reservoirs have been included. These are reported as biogenic in the LCI.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represents medium voltage electricity used at consumer in Norway. Users should be aware to choose the correct voltage level. Ecoinvent 3.8 has been used for the background processes.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Electricity from gas, coal, other fossil (assumed oil) and other renewable (assumed wood chips) have been assumed from combined heat and power plants. Hydro power imported from Sweden has been assumed as 100% run-of-river. Norwegian hydro power has been assumed as 76% reservoir and 24% run-of-river according to Silva and Modahl (2019).

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Calculation of the high voltage electricity mix is based on the following by NVE (2020):

-       Imported electricity is assumed produced in the country from which it is imported.

-       Exported electricity from Norway is assumed produced in Norway.

-       Import and export it is assumed that the electricity is crossing one country border only.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2020

 

##Time representativeness description##

To calculate the Norwegian high voltage mix, the net import and export for each country has been calculated by the hour throughout one year and then summed (NVE 2020). The electricity mix is specific for Norway in 2020, while the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network) are from ecoinvent 3.8 and may be older.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Not applicable in the foreground system. For the different electricity production processes (background processes), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% is included in the foreground modelling. For the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and transmission network), see ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure for dams, turbines, cables, equipment, buildings, roads etc is included in the background processes (electricity produced by different technologies using different energy carriers, transformation and distribution network).

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The dataset is based on the high voltage electricity consumption mix given by NVE (2020), which is then transformed to medium and low voltage by using ecoinvent 3.8 – allocation, cut-off background processes.

 

##Data collection period##

2020

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Generated by Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

##References##

NVE (2021): Hvor kommer strømmen fra? (Where does the electricity come from?) Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate), published 15.06.2020, updated 02.07.2021. Assessed 20.09.2021. Link: https://www.nve.no/energiforsyning/kraftproduksjon/hvor-kommer-strommen-fra/?ref=mainmenu#:~:text=Norge%20er%20en%20del%20av,hovedsak%20kom%20fra%20fornybare%20energikilder

Silva, M. and Modahl, I.S. (2019): The inventory and life cycle data for Norwegian hydroelectricity. Ostfold Research (now NORSUS), AR 01.19, public, May 2019 (based on AR 02.15 public memo). Link: https://norsus.no/publikasjon/the-inventory-and-life-cycle-data-for-norwegian-hydroelectricity/

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Knot extract; without water, in 60% solution state; from Norway Spruce biorefinery, at plant

 

##Reference flow##

1 kg dry matter

 

##System boundaries##

The system includes all upstream processes (extraction, transport and refinement of raw materials and energy) and processes taking place at the biorefinery. Energy and resource use in offices is included. Work travels and commuting to work is not included. Emissions from combustion of waste for steam production are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, according to the polluter pays principle.

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

Treatment of waste is included. Recycling credits outside the biorefinery are not included.

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Uptake and emissions of biogenic carbon are included.

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The aim of the dataset is to document the environmental properties for a product under development. The product was developed in the BACS project (short for BioActive Compounds from Spruce), where the underlying idea was to develop sustainable value added products, processes and applications for compounds extracted from Norway spruce that are bioactive or will stimulate and improve the bioactivity of other compounds in formulations. Preliminary LCA results were used as input to the innovation process by identifying hotspots. The dataset was developed in the WP 8 work package of the BACS research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (consortium agreement no. 295501). Borregaard was the project owner. Ecoinvent 3 – allocation, cut-of by classification, version 3.8 was used as backgrund database.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Modelling of the foreground system of the biorefinery is based on specific data from Borregaard Sarpsborg, Norway. For the main biorefinery (processing of knots for use as input to the BACS biorefinery system), real data for the full-scale biorefinery have been used, hence the data represent the exact technology. For the BACS biorefinery system (processing knots to knot extract), calculated data based on theoretical information, estimates and knowledge from similar processes at the main biorefinery have been used. Data for the input chemicals and processes upstream the main biorefinery at Borregaard Sarpsborg have been found in generic databases.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

Foreground data are specific for the product dataset (Borregaard biorefinery, Sarpsborg, Norway). As far as possible, background data representative for Norwegian conditions have been used.

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Very good.

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

Specific data are from 2019 and 2021.

 

##Time representativeness description##

Annual data have been used for the main biorefiney, except for steam, where the input of electricity and natural gas was averaged over a 7-year period. For the BACS biorefinery system, hourly data have been used. Data for production of other raw materials, energy, transport and waste treatment options have been found in the ecoinvent database. Choosing the most correct technology has been prioritised over newer data.

 

##Time Quality Level##

Very good.

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

For generic data, ecoinvent’s ‘allocation, cut-off by classification’ database have been used. For specific data at the biorefinery, allocation has been avoided as far as possible by analysing the processes on a detailed level. When necessary, energy allocation (based on dry matter content (DM)) has been used at the biorefinery.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Economic allocation was found unsuitable because several of the allocations have included products that have no market value, and because over time, no product in the main biorefinery acts as the single driving force of the system.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

100% coverage

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Included

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

All results and allocations have been based on dry matter (DM) in the internal flows and final products. Ethanol has been accounted for as DM in both internal flows and final products. For steam input and output, data from the main biorefinery have been used (assumed as ‘large’ compared with the BACS biorefinery system, hence not affected by the consumption in the BACS biorefinery system). Delivery of steam from the BACS biorefinery system back to the main biorefinery is included as avoided burdens.

 

##Data collection period##

2020-2022

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ingunn Saur Modahl

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Modahl, I. S. and E. Soldal (2021). The 2019 LCA of products from Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Report no OR.14.21. Link: https://norsus.no/en/publikasjon/the-2019-lca-of-products-from-borregaard-sarpsborg/. Fredrikstad, NORSUS.

 

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2022): Sustainability of BACS products (BioActive Compounds from Spruce). Report no. OR.17.22 (confidential). Fredrikstad, Norway.

 

##

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##General Information##

##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state

##Reference flow## 1kg dry product

##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. 

 

The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.  

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water.

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.8 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 9.2.0) was used to model the system.

##Technology Quality level## Very good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## Norway

##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway

##Geographical Quality level## Very good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year## 2016

##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. 

##Time Quality Level## Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle## Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user.

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

##Data collection period## 2008 – 2018

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl

##Access and use restrictions## Free

##References##

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.

Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research. Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016.

##

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##General Information##

##Product name##

Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road

##Reference flow##

1 kg DM

 

##System boundaries##

The dataset represents manual harvest of beech in France. The dataset covers stand establishment (production of seedlings in an unheated greenhouse and planting), tending and cleaning, thinning, manual final harvest and chipping. Construction and maintenance of infrastructure, like machinery and forest roads, are included. The system ends with wood chips at forest road. The activities over one rotation period are included. 

The activity starts with site preparation assuming establishment of the forest via planting, including seedling production and covers all process related to forest management, including site preparation, planting, tending, young growth tending, clearing, thinning, and harvesting operations including the processing of wood fuel to chips, bundles and chopped wood (logs for energy) over one rotation period. It also covers the maintenance and construction of forest roads. This activity ends with the assortments at the forest road and includes eventual drying before transportation.

##Wastes and end-of-life##

 

 

##Biogenic carbon##

Biogenic carbon included as resource input from nature (uptake of carbon dioxide in air)

 

##Use advice of the dataset##

The dataset should be used to analyze the impact from beech wood chips that originate from thinning operations in France. Measured as dry mass

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

For the chipping in the stand, a productivity of 25 m3 bulked/PMH is assumed (based on Cremer & Velazquesz). For wood chips chipped in the stand, a productivity of the forwarding of 70 Sm3 bulked/PMH with a diesel consumption of 9.5 l/h of the forwarder is assumed. 24.4% thinning (mechanical) and 76.6% (manual) final harvest

 

##Technology Quality level##Fair

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location## France (FR)

 

##Geographical representativeness description##

The dataset is based on dataset on harvest of hardwood in Germany from Wernet et al. (2016). The dataset has been adjusted to reflect beech forests, and beech forest management in France. The adjustments include changes in the harvesting methods to mirror the relative share of manual harvesting vs mechanized harvesters in the eastern parts on France, the allocation between clear-cut and thinning, and the area used for different practices (Pelletier, 2017).  

 

##Geographical Quality level##

Fair

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2017

 

##Time representativeness description## Data represent 2017 for the specifications of French beech management while original ecoinvent data are largely based on a data source from 2009. Data are still considered representative due to small developments in forest management and harvest operations.

 

 

##Time Quality Level##

Fair

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

 

##LCI allocation methods##

Allocation based on mass.

 

##Other comments on methods approaches##

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

All known inputs are included.

 

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Construction and maintenance of roads and machinery are included

 

 

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

In communication with French Institute of Technology for Forest-based and Furniture Sectors (FCBA), it was recommended to use the ecoinvent (v3.8) dataset for beech from Germany as representative for beech from the eastern parts of France. The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data and is widely used in Europe. The data set “hardwood forestry, beech, sustainable forest management” was selected. This dataset covers the production and harvesting of 1 m3 of stemwood, beech, solid, under bark, plus the relative share of energy wood from slash from sustainable forest management as the prevailing management practices in Germany (Wernet et al., 2016). Changes were made to allocation principles, harvesting regimes, and area used to reflect French beech forestry (Pelletier, 2017).

##Data collection period##

2017 - 2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Andreas Brekke

 

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

 

##References##

Cremer, T. and B. Velazques-Marti (2007): Evaluation of two harvesting systems for the supply of woodchips in Norway spurce forest affected by bark beetle. Croation Journal of Forest Engineering, 28(2): 145-155.

Pelletier, C. (2017). Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie. Université de Lorraine, Retrieved from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01765854/document (2017LORR0331)

Wernet, G., Bauer, C., Steubing, B., Reinhard, J., Moreno-Ruiz, E., & Weidema, B. (2016). The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(9), 1218-1230. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8

##

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"##General Information##

##Product name##

Heat, for district heating, Norwegian production mix, at plant

##Reference flow##

1 kWh

 

##System boundaries##

Production mix of district heat in Norway in 2021, based on information on energy carriers from Norsk Fjernvarme. The activity starts with acquisition of energy carriers, i.e., waste reception at gate, acquisition and transport of fossil oil and gas, harvesting and transport of woody biomass, and production, transformation from high to low voltage and transmission of electricity. The activity stops at district heat production facility (i.e. distribution is not included).

 

##Wastes and end-of-life##

##Biogenic carbon##

##Use advice of the dataset##

This dataset represents the district heat production mix in Norway in the year 2021. Data on heat production and share of different energy carriers are collected from www.fjernkontrollen.no. ecoinvent 3.8 allocation, cut-off by classification is used for the background data. 

 

 

##Technological representativeness##

##Technology description##

Average technology for production and transmission of electricity in Norway. Heat from the other sources based on average European technologies. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For ambient heat, heat pump is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

 

##Technology Quality level##

Good

 

##Geographical representativeness##

##Location##

Norway

##Geographical representativeness description##

Total heat production and share of sources are representative for Norway. Background data are representative for European technology.

##Geographical Quality level##

Good

 

##Time related representativeness##

##Reference year##

2021

##Time representativeness description##

Annual production.

##Time Quality Level##

Very good

 

##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##

##LCI method principle##

Attributional

##LCI allocation methods##

##Other comments on methods approaches##

Allocation cut-off by classification in background data.  

 

##Completeness##

##Cut off for mass or energy flows##

##Infrastructure/capital goods##

Infrastructure is included

##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##

The energy carriers are given by Norsk Fjernvarme. One technology is selected to represent each category of energy carriers. For fuel oil, light fuel oil is selected. For ambient heat, heat pump is selected. For bioenergy, wood logs combustion is used as representative technology.

##Data collection period##

2021

 

##Administrative Information##

##Data set generator##

Ellen Soldal

##Access and use restrictions##

Open

##References##

Norsk Fjernvarme (2022). Fjernkontrollen.no. [online] Available at https://www.fjernkontrollen.no/ Webpage. Access date: 27.09.2022.

##

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Rådata fra ecospold endpoint for prosjekt 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6

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                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name##
Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road
##Reference flow##
1 kg DM
##System boundaries##
The dataset represents manual harvest of beech in France. The dataset covers stand establishment (production of seedlings in an unheated greenhouse and planting), tending and cleaning, thinning, manual final harvest and chipping. Construction and maintenance of infrastructure, like machinery and forest roads, are included. The system ends with wood chips at forest road. The activities over one rotation period are included.
The activity starts with site preparation assuming establishment of the forest via planting, including seedling production and covers all process related to forest management, including site preparation, planting, tending, young growth tending, clearing, thinning, and harvesting operations including the processing of wood fuel to chips, bundles and chopped wood (logs for energy) over one rotation period. It also covers the maintenance and construction of forest roads. This activity ends with the assortments at the forest road and includes eventual drying before transportation.
##Wastes and end-of-life##
##Biogenic carbon##
Biogenic carbon included as resource input from nature (uptake of carbon dioxide in air)
##Use advice of the dataset##
The dataset should be used to analyze the impact from beech wood chips that originate from thinning operations in France. Measured as dry mass
##Technological representativeness##
##Technology description##
For the chipping in the stand, a productivity of 25 m3 bulked/PMH is assumed (based on Cremer & Velazquesz). For wood chips chipped in the stand, a productivity of the forwarding of 70 Sm3 bulked/PMH with a diesel consumption of 9.5 l/h of the forwarder is assumed. 24.4% thinning (mechanical) and 76.6% (manual) final harvest
##Technology Quality level##Fair
##Geographical representativeness##
##Location## France (FR)
##Geographical representativeness description##
The dataset is based on dataset on harvest of hardwood in Germany from Wernet et al. (2016). The dataset has been adjusted to reflect beech forests, and beech forest management in France. The adjustments include changes in the harvesting methods to mirror the relative share of manual harvesting vs mechanized harvesters in the eastern parts on France, the allocation between clear-cut and thinning, and the area used for different practices (Pelletier, 2017).
##Geographical Quality level##
Fair
##Time related representativeness##
##Reference year##
2017
##Time representativeness description## Data represent 2017 for the specifications of French beech management while original ecoinvent data are largely based on a data source from 2009. Data are still considered representative due to small developments in forest management and harvest operations.
##Time Quality Level##
Fair
##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##
##LCI method principle##
Attributional
##LCI allocation methods##
Allocation based on mass.
##Other comments on methods approaches##
##Completeness##
##Cut off for mass or energy flows##
All known inputs are included.
##Infrastructure/capital goods##
Construction and maintenance of roads and machinery are included
##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##
In communication with French Institute of Technology for Forest-based and Furniture Sectors (FCBA), it was recommended to use the ecoinvent (v3.6) dataset for beech from Germany as representative for beech from the eastern parts of France. The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data and is widely used in Europe. The data set “hardwood forestry, beech, sustainable forest management” was selected. This dataset covers the production and harvesting of 1 m3 of stemwood, beech, solid, under bark, plus the relative share of energy wood from slash from sustainable forest management as the prevailing management practices in Germany (Wernet et al., 2016). Changes were made to allocation principles, harvesting regimes, and area used to reflect French beech forestry (Pelletier, 2017).
##Data collection period##
2017 - 2021
##Administrative Information##
##Data set generator##
Andreas Brekke
##Access and use restrictions##
Open
##References##
Cremer, T. and B. Velazques-Marti (2007): Evaluation of two harvesting systems for the supply of woodchips in Norway spurce forest affected by bark beetle. Croation Journal of Forest Engineering, 28(2): 145-155.
Pelletier, C. (2017). Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie. Université de Lorraine, Retrieved from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01765854/document (2017LORR0331)
Wernet, G., Bauer, C., Steubing, B., Reinhard, J., Moreno-Ruiz, E., & Weidema, B. (2016). The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(9), 1218-1230. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8
##
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                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state
##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product
##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging.
The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste. 

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Other materials ) [Id] => 96ae53c7-42db-46a9-8ad9-130ceea96c47 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [2] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Erema Refresher [GeographyId] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [Name] => GLO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [LibraryId] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [Name] => Plastic granulate, ReFreshed, at plant, DE ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => ab0ff6a0-3cb7-4337-8007-2200de6c38f7 [ActivityName] => Erema Refresher [Type] => Unit [GeneralComment] => 1 kg plastic (HPDE or PP) in the process, no reject. Energy consumption is dependent on the residence time. Utiliztion of max capacity assumed. Residence time is changed in the parameters. PC 13.08.19 ) [Id] => ab0ff6a0-3cb7-4337-8007-2200de6c38f7 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [3] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [LibraryId] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [Name] => Exilva Forte, without water, in 10% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-10-01T09:31:34.7167212 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => e884f469-cf08-427c-8ce6-a202b82d6635 [ActivityName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [Type] => Unit [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state ##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Other materials ) [Id] => 6bf776c4-c727-43b9-ab36-754773bd2e91 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [4] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [LibraryId] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [Name] => Exilva Forte, without water, in 2% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-04-22T11:20:25.3948522 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => 26e69496-2017-4e5f-bf6c-6e1dfb4d79d1 [ActivityName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [Type] => Unit [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state ##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Other materials ) [Id] => c34f2397-e13d-47da-a834-95690094c251 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [5] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [LibraryId] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [Name] => Exilva Piano, without water, in 2% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-10-01T09:31:40.1906292 [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) ) [ActivityDescription] => Array ( [Id] => 7d72f807-f59a-4906-a953-c82c09c2ac84 [ActivityName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [Type] => Unit [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state ##Reference flow## 1kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## Test ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 – 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Tags] => Sector_Materials production / Other materials ) [Id] => b0cfcd10-204f-4591-9ff4-cef41ad6722f [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) )
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            [Name] => Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road
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                    [Name_BaseName] => Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road
                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name##
Wood chips, beech; wet, manual harvest, hardwood forestry; at forest road
##Reference flow##
1 kg DM
##System boundaries##
The dataset represents manual harvest of beech in France. The dataset covers stand establishment (production of seedlings in an unheated greenhouse and planting), tending and cleaning, thinning, manual final harvest and chipping. Construction and maintenance of infrastructure, like machinery and forest roads, are included. The system ends with wood chips at forest road. The activities over one rotation period are included.
The activity starts with site preparation assuming establishment of the forest via planting, including seedling production and covers all process related to forest management, including site preparation, planting, tending, young growth tending, clearing, thinning, and harvesting operations including the processing of wood fuel to chips, bundles and chopped wood (logs for energy) over one rotation period. It also covers the maintenance and construction of forest roads. This activity ends with the assortments at the forest road and includes eventual drying before transportation.
##Wastes and end-of-life##
##Biogenic carbon##
Biogenic carbon included as resource input from nature (uptake of carbon dioxide in air)
##Use advice of the dataset##
The dataset should be used to analyze the impact from beech wood chips that originate from thinning operations in France. Measured as dry mass
##Technological representativeness##
##Technology description##
For the chipping in the stand, a productivity of 25 m3 bulked/PMH is assumed (based on Cremer & Velazquesz). For wood chips chipped in the stand, a productivity of the forwarding of 70 Sm3 bulked/PMH with a diesel consumption of 9.5 l/h of the forwarder is assumed. 24.4% thinning (mechanical) and 76.6% (manual) final harvest
##Technology Quality level##Fair
##Geographical representativeness##
##Location## France (FR)
##Geographical representativeness description##
The dataset is based on dataset on harvest of hardwood in Germany from Wernet et al. (2016). The dataset has been adjusted to reflect beech forests, and beech forest management in France. The adjustments include changes in the harvesting methods to mirror the relative share of manual harvesting vs mechanized harvesters in the eastern parts on France, the allocation between clear-cut and thinning, and the area used for different practices (Pelletier, 2017).
##Geographical Quality level##
Fair
##Time related representativeness##
##Reference year##
2017
##Time representativeness description## Data represent 2017 for the specifications of French beech management while original ecoinvent data are largely based on a data source from 2009. Data are still considered representative due to small developments in forest management and harvest operations.
##Time Quality Level##
Fair
##Methodological appropriateness and consistency##
##LCI method principle##
Attributional
##LCI allocation methods##
Allocation based on mass.
##Other comments on methods approaches##
##Completeness##
##Cut off for mass or energy flows##
All known inputs are included.
##Infrastructure/capital goods##
Construction and maintenance of roads and machinery are included
##Data treatment and extrapolations principles##
In communication with French Institute of Technology for Forest-based and Furniture Sectors (FCBA), it was recommended to use the ecoinvent (v3.6) dataset for beech from Germany as representative for beech from the eastern parts of France. The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data and is widely used in Europe. The data set “hardwood forestry, beech, sustainable forest management” was selected. This dataset covers the production and harvesting of 1 m3 of stemwood, beech, solid, under bark, plus the relative share of energy wood from slash from sustainable forest management as the prevailing management practices in Germany (Wernet et al., 2016). Changes were made to allocation principles, harvesting regimes, and area used to reflect French beech forestry (Pelletier, 2017).
##Data collection period##
2017 - 2021
##Administrative Information##
##Data set generator##
Andreas Brekke
##Access and use restrictions##
Open
##References##
Cremer, T. and B. Velazques-Marti (2007): Evaluation of two harvesting systems for the supply of woodchips in Norway spurce forest affected by bark beetle. Croation Journal of Forest Engineering, 28(2): 145-155.
Pelletier, C. (2017). Analyse environnementale et économique des filières bois-énergie. Université de Lorraine, Retrieved from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01765854/document (2017LORR0331)
Wernet, G., Bauer, C., Steubing, B., Reinhard, J., Moreno-Ruiz, E., & Weidema, B. (2016). The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 21(9), 1218-1230. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1087-8
##
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            [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6
            [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state
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                    [Name] => Exilva Piano, without water, in 10% solution state; at plant; System
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                    [GeneralComment] => ##General Information##
##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state
##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product
##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging.
The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste. 

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Time_ReferenceYear] => 2021 [Time_DataSetValidUntil] => 2027 [Time_RepresentativenessDescription] => 5 years default [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography [Geography_LocationOfOperationSupplyOrProduction] => NO ) [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( [LCIMethodAndAllocation_TypeOfDataSet] => Unit_process_single_operation [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodPrinciple] => Attributional [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodApproaches] => Array ( [Not_applicable] => Not applicable ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_ReferencesToDataSource] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - compliance (non-Process) ) ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_PercentageSupplyOrProductionCovered] => 100 [Completeness_CompletenessProductModel] => No_statement [Completeness_ElementaryFlows] => Array ( ) [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [QualityCompliance] => Not_defined [NomenclatureCompliance] => Not_defined [MethodologicalCompliance] => Not_defined [ReviewCompliance] => Not_defined [DocumentationCompliance] => Not_defined [ReferenceToComplianceSystem] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) [ApprovalOfOverallCompliance] => Not_defined ) ) ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [CommissionerAndGoal_ReferenceToCommissioner] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetUseApproval] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [LibraryId] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [Name] => No official approval by producer or operator ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_DateOfLastRevision] => 2021-10-01T09:31:29.5553404 [PublicationAndOwnership_CopyRight] => 1 [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_LicenceType] => Other [DataEntryBy_TimeStamp] => 2021-10-01T09:31:29.5553404 [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetFormat] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [LibraryId] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToOwnershipOfDataSet] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [Id] => 96ae53c7-42db-46a9-8ad9-130ceea96c47 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [2] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Erema Refresher [GeographyId] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 34dbbff8-88ce-11de-ad60-0019e336be3a [Name] => GLO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [LibraryId] => 271517ac-41c3-45c0-b1d5-37eaacf8fd3d [Name] => Plastic granulate, ReFreshed, at plant, DE ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [ProcessInformation] => Array ( [UUID] => ab0ff6a0-3cb7-4337-8007-2200de6c38f7 [Name_BaseName] => Erema Refresher [GeneralComment] => 1 kg plastic (HPDE or PP) in the process, no reject. Energy consumption is dependent on the residence time. Utiliztion of max capacity assumed. Residence time is changed in the parameters. PC 13.08.19 [Time_ReferenceYear] => 2021 [Time_DataSetValidUntil] => 2027 [Time_RepresentativenessDescription] => 5 years default [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography [Geography_LocationOfOperationSupplyOrProduction] => GLO ) [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( [LCIMethodAndAllocation_TypeOfDataSet] => Unit_process_single_operation [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodPrinciple] => Attributional [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodApproaches] => Array ( [Not_applicable] => Not applicable ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_ReferencesToDataSource] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - compliance (non-Process) ) ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_PercentageSupplyOrProductionCovered] => 100 [Completeness_CompletenessProductModel] => No_statement [Completeness_ElementaryFlows] => Array ( ) [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [QualityCompliance] => Not_defined [NomenclatureCompliance] => Not_defined [MethodologicalCompliance] => Not_defined [ReviewCompliance] => Not_defined [DocumentationCompliance] => Not_defined [ReferenceToComplianceSystem] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) [ApprovalOfOverallCompliance] => Not_defined ) ) ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [CommissionerAndGoal_ReferenceToCommissioner] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetUseApproval] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [LibraryId] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [Name] => No official approval by producer or operator ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_DateOfLastRevision] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [PublicationAndOwnership_CopyRight] => 1 [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_LicenceType] => Other [DataEntryBy_TimeStamp] => 2021-03-16T12:47:36.092586 [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetFormat] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [LibraryId] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToOwnershipOfDataSet] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [Id] => ab0ff6a0-3cb7-4337-8007-2200de6c38f7 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [3] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [LibraryId] => e75b4bdb-e35b-42a0-ba92-f78ffb5b38a8 [Name] => Exilva Forte, without water, in 10% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-10-01T09:31:34.7167212 [ProcessInformation] => Array ( [UUID] => e884f469-cf08-427c-8ce6-a202b82d6635 [Name_BaseName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 10% solution state ##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 10% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. Emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated to the user. ##Completeness## ##Cut off for mass or energy flows## No cut off in the foreground system (Exilva plant) and the biorefinery producing specialty cellulose as a raw material to the Exilva plant. ##Infrastructure/capital goods## ##Data treatment and extrapolations principles## ##Data collection period## 2008 - 2018 ##Administrative Information## ##Data set generator## Ingunn Saur Modahl ##Access and use restrictions## Free ## [Time_ReferenceYear] => 2021 [Time_DataSetValidUntil] => 2027 [Time_RepresentativenessDescription] => 5 years default [Geography_OperationSupplyOrProductionDescriptionOfRestrictions] => Restricted to specified geography [Geography_LocationOfOperationSupplyOrProduction] => NO ) [ModelingAndValidation] => Array ( [LCIMethodAndAllocation_TypeOfDataSet] => Unit_process_single_operation [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodPrinciple] => Attributional [LCIMethodAndAllocation_LCIMethodApproaches] => Array ( [Not_applicable] => Not applicable ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_ReferencesToDataSource] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - compliance (non-Process) ) ) [DataSourcesTreatmentAndRepresentativeness_PercentageSupplyOrProductionCovered] => 100 [Completeness_CompletenessProductModel] => No_statement [Completeness_ElementaryFlows] => Array ( ) [ComplianceDeclarations_Compliance] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [QualityCompliance] => Not_defined [NomenclatureCompliance] => Not_defined [MethodologicalCompliance] => Not_defined [ReviewCompliance] => Not_defined [DocumentationCompliance] => Not_defined [ReferenceToComplianceSystem] => Array ( [Id] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [LibraryId] => 9ba3ac1e-6797-4cc0-afd5-1b8f7bf28c6a [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) [ApprovalOfOverallCompliance] => Not_defined ) ) ) [AdministrativeInformation] => Array ( [CommissionerAndGoal_ReferenceToCommissioner] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataGenerator_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityGeneratingTheDataSet] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToPersonOrEntityEnteringTheData] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetUseApproval] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [LibraryId] => be34bbb0-b054-11db-abbd-0800200c9a66 [Name] => No official approval by producer or operator ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_DateOfLastRevision] => 2021-10-01T09:31:34.7167212 [PublicationAndOwnership_CopyRight] => 1 [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToEntitiesWithExclusiveAccess] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [LibraryId] => 8b3e08f0-740a-43b1-aa8d-bec56c5daf6e [Name] => FINAL USER ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_LicenceType] => Other [DataEntryBy_TimeStamp] => 2021-10-01T09:31:34.7167212 [DataEntryBy_ReferenceToDataSetFormat] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [Id] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [LibraryId] => d92a1a12-2545-49e2-a585-55c259997756 [Name] => ILCD Data Network - Entry-level ) ) [PublicationAndOwnership_ReferenceToOwnershipOfDataSet] => Array ( [Id] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [LibraryId] => 7f556cf2-6175-4787-a115-9cd4bab0eb74 [Name] => Pieter Callewaert [Email] => pieter@norsus.no ) ) [Id] => 6bf776c4-c727-43b9-ab36-754773bd2e91 [CreatedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [ModifiedBy] => f85f5371-0565-455c-a114-155dacbcb44d [IsEditable] => 1 ) [4] => Array ( [ProjectId] => 42857b44-1699-43c3-9de7-92a8c9e144f6 [Name] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [LibraryId] => 32c1870b-0080-4f3f-ac05-7afed89fbeb6 [Name] => Exilva Forte, without water, in 2% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-04-22T11:20:25.3948522 [ProcessInformation] => Array ( [UUID] => 26e69496-2017-4e5f-bf6c-6e1dfb4d79d1 [Name_BaseName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Forte; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state ##Reference flow## 1 kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Forte grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway. ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. 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without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeographyId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Geography] => Array ( [Id] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [LibraryId] => 10f1ec30-7d7e-11de-9ae2-0019e336be3a [Name] => NO ) [ReferenceProductId] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [ReferenceProduct] => Array ( [Id] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [LibraryId] => 9573dca6-0d8b-4558-9c30-f719728bf40f [Name] => Exilva Piano, without water, in 2% solution state; at plant; System ) [CreatedOn] => 2021-02-15T14:23:58.448232 [ModifiedOn] => 2021-10-01T09:31:40.1906292 [ProcessInformation] => Array ( [UUID] => 7d72f807-f59a-4906-a953-c82c09c2ac84 [Name_BaseName] => Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state [GeneralComment] => ##General Information## ##Product name## Microfibrillated cellulose, Exilva Piano; without water; at plant; in 2% solution state ##Reference flow## 1kg dry product ##System boundaries## Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) of the Exilva Piano grade, in a 2% concentration at the Exilva industrial MFC plant in Sarpsborg, Norway. The functional unit is 1 kg dry product at factory gate, without packaging. The modelling of the Exilva plant has been part of work package 7 (WP7) of the H2020 BBI JU Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). The modelling of the Borregaard biorefinery and the Exilva site have been documented in the following reports: Modahl and Soldal (2015) and Modahl, Brekke, Valente and Soldal (2016). The 2011 status of the specialty cellulose was published as a scientific paper by Modahl, Brekke and Valente (2015). Exilva MFC comes in four grades: Piano Light, Piano, Forte and Forte Plus, and all qualities are produced both as a 2% suspension and a 10% paste.

Modahl, I.S. and Soldal, E. (2015): The 2015 LCA of products from the wood-based biorefinery at Borregaard, Sarpsborg. Results for cellulose, ethanols, lignosulfonates, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ostfold Research, OR 11.15, April 2016.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A. and Valente, C. (2015): Environmental assessment of chemical products from a Norwegian biorefinery. Journal of Cleaner Production 94 (2015) 247-259.
Modahl, I.S., Brekke, A., Valente, C., and Soldal, E. (2016): E-LCA and S-LCA of the Exilva MFC process. AR 10.16 Ostfold Research.
Deliverable report D7.2 from work package 7 of the H2020 Exilva project 'Flagship demonstration of an integrated plant towards large scale supply and market assessment of MFC' (Grant Agreement No 709746). Confidential. November 2016. ##Wastes and end-of-life## ##Biogenic carbon## Test ##Use advice of the dataset## MFC has many different application areas where different characteristics are emphasised. If the dataset is used for comparing Exilva MFC to other materials for the same purpose, special attention should be directed to product formulations and amounts. Necessary data to perform toxicity assessments has not been collected. Data are given for the active substance of the product. It is, however, sold and used with relative large amounts of water. Hence, make sure you calculate the correct amount of active substance. An example: you are transporting 1 kg of 2% Exilva. The amount of active substance is 20g. To calculate the correct transport volume, you will need to transport 20g of active substance and 980g water. ##Technological representativeness## ##Technology description## Production of the specialty cellulose, which is the main raw material for the MFC, takes place in an advanced biorefinery which also produces lignosulfonates, bioethanol, vanillin, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Further processing of the specialty cellulose to MFC is made in a full-scale industrial plant built in 2016 (Exilva site). The main raw material of the biorefinery is Norway Spruce from Norway and Sweden. Specific data has been used for all activities at the Borregaard biorefinery and Exilva sites. Data for the biorefinery are from 2015 and data for the Exilva plant are from 2016 and 2018. The Ecoinvent database (version 3.4 allocation cut-off by classification) has been used for background processes. The biorefinery and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, avoiding allocation to a large extent. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. An attributional approach has been used. To be in line with the EPDs made for the biorefinery's products (including the specialty cellulose), the following system boundaries have been applied: Norwegian electricity production mix has been used for electricity used in Norway, emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated the user of the heat, rather the producer of the waste, and emissions from combustion of waste oil and biogas have been allocated the user. Infrastructure is included (in contrast to the EPDs, where infrastructure in the form of production equipment with an expected lifetime over three years, buildings and capital goods are not included except for energy carriers). The LCA software SimaPro (version 8.2.3) was used to model the system. ##Technology Quality level## Very good ##Geographical representativeness## ##Location## Norway ##Geographical representativeness description## Data for the biorefinery is collected from, and specific for, the given biorefinery in Sarpsborg, Norway ##Geographical Quality level## Very good ##Time related representativeness## ##Reference year## 2016 ##Time representativeness description## Data for the Exilva plant is from 2016, and for the biorefinery data for the major flows are from 2015 (specialty cellulose as raw material). Data used are based on annual numbers. For the biorefinery these numbers could change somewhat from year to year but the burdens per kg of specialty cellulose would not vary much. Changes in the energy carrier mix of the biorefinery could, however, alter resource use, emissions and waste generation. For the Exilva plant (microfibrillation of specialty cellulose), flows per kg of product will be quite constant. ##Time Quality Level## Very good ##Methodological appropriateness and consistency## ##LCI method principle## Attributional ##LCI allocation methods## ##Other comments on methods approaches## The biorefinery (producing specialty cellulose as a raw material for the microfibrillated cellulose) and the Exilva plant have been modelled on a detailed level, largely avoiding the need for allocation. Energy allocation has been used when necessary. For steam and hot water, the enthalpy has been used. Infrastructure is included. Emissions from combustion of waste for heat production at the biorefinery are not allocated to the user of the heat, rather to the producer of the waste. 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Process name (write in ""Documentation, name"" in simapro, see nomenclature rules!)
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Location: NO
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Allocation between sawlog and pulpwood has been adjusted to be in line with the requirements in EN 15804. This means economic allcoation of silviculture operations and harvesting, but the forwarding is not allocated. It is assumed that the forwarding is not affected of the demand for pulpwood and it is therefore not part of the joint co-production. In silviculture and harvesting, this is assumed to be a joint co-production processes. Adjustment of volume allocation to economic is by a factor of 1.3 for sawlog and 0.6 for pulpwood.

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Dinitrogen monoxide utslipp som reaksjon etter skoggjødsling: "Målrettet gjødsling av skog som Klimatiltak 5.1.3. (Nibio 2014)"
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                    [GeneralComment] => "[This dataset is meant to replace the following datasets:
 - heat production, softwood chips from forest, at furnace 1000kW, CH, 2000 - 2001 (cf5d8dcd-450a-4d57-abf5-63a0327ca7db)]

This activity represents the combustion of natural wood chips from forest in Switzerland. Characteristics of the of wood chips to be burned: Dry wood density 430kg/m3; Energy content (LHV, oven-dry) 19.1 MJ/kg. The humidity when burned is assumed to be at an adequate level for appropriate combustion after some weeks of drying in the storage. Air emission factors as well as the boiler efficiency represent average annual operation including start and stop (warm-up and shut-down). Therefore, emission data will be higher and efficiency will be lower than rated values provided by manufacturers. The inventory shall be considered as being representative also for boilers with nominal capacities in the approximate range of 500 kW to 2 MW. 



Production volume: 1 MJ

Included activities start: from delivery of wood chips

Included activities end: This activity describes the combustion of natural wood chips from forest. Included are the infrastructure, the wood requirements (softwood chips from forest), the emissions to air, the electricity needed for operation, and the disposal of the ashes.
Energy values: Undefined (default)

Geography: Represents average Swiss conditions and could be used for Europe as well.

Technology level: 3 Current (default)

Technology: Boiler of average technology available on the Swiss market. 

Start date: 2000-01-01

End date: 2016-12-31

Is data valid for entire period: true

Time period: Key emission factors PM, CO, NMVOC, CH4, NOx as well as the average annual efficiency have been updated using the latest available information. Other emission data are from the second half of the 1990?s.

Macro-economic scenario name: Business-as-Usual


Version: 3.0.3.0

Created: 2014-01-28T11:24:35

Last edited: 2015-11-09T17:01:05

Source: 9e90d190-f760-4100-819f-20bf75879cd6_71e2f1db-a2c5-44d0-8337-dfff15be974d.spold

This system process is created from a calculated inventory excluding long-term emissions!
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Version: 2.2
Energy values: Undefined
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Local category: Holzbaustoffe
Local subcategory: Gewinnung
Source file: 02472.XML
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