Sawlog; spruce; measured under bark; mechanical forestry, production mix; at forest road
1 m3, under bark
List of input processes: Pre-commercial thinning (previously named Cleaning), Forwarding, Pesticides, Final harvest, Fertilizing, Planting, Road building, Road rebuilding, Seed production, Seedling production, Soil scarification. All of these 11 processes use ecoinvent background process inputs, as well, and we are working on getting them published for easy reuse of this data set. Road building. Harvest of forest and land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel. Road rebuilding. Land transformation. Machine operation and transport of machines. Gravel for road material and transport of gravel. Soil scarification. Machine use. Transport of machine and personnel between sites. Planting. Seed and seedling production. Transport plants and personnel. Pre-commerical thinning (previously “Cleaning”). Power sawing machine use. Transport of personnel. Pesticide, spreading. Production of pesticide. Spreading with helicopter. Fertilizing. Production of fertilizer. Transport of fertilizer from production on lorry. Spreading with helicopter. Emissions to air of dinitrogen monoxide. Final harvesting. Harvesting machine use. Transport of harvester between sites. Forwarding. Forwarder including direct emissions, fuel production, production, maintenance, end-of-life of forwarder. Transport of forwarder between harvest areas. Transport of personnel to harvest areas.
Wastes and end-of-life
There are no wastes in the core process, upstream processes have waste treatment as in ecoinvent cut-off.
Use advice of the dataset
If used for EN 15804+A1, additional flows in the LCI must be added for the energy and biogenic carbon. If used for EN 15804:+A2, land use must in addition also be added. Note: if importing into Nordic or German Excel, there is an issue with certain numbers turning into date, for instance 1.29 turning into January the first.
Mechanical forestry with harvester and forwarder. Fossil source of diesel.
Geographical representativeness description
Representative for the most common harvesting in Norway for softwood. On the west coast of Norway, other harvesting such as with cables might be used. The fuel used in forwarder are dependent on the distance to the road and 500 meters are included, but could be shorter or longer.
Time representativeness description
Silviculture activities (fertilizer, Road building, Road rebuilding, Soil scarification, Planting, Cleaning, Pesticide, spreading) based on 2017. Harvesting fuel use from 2009, but evaluated as representative for 2020.
Time quality level
LCI method principle
Attributional. Based on ecoinvent cut-off.
Other comments on methods approaches
The LCI procedures is with the aim to be used in foreground LCI modelling for EPD according to EN 15804. The inputs from nature are not included from the direct forest activities (land transformation and occupation, biogenic carbon and energy content, biomass). These must be added in a later stage of the LCI when necessary.
Cut off for mass or energy flows
No cut-off has been applied when data has been available. Some purchased services and infrastructure might be left out.
Data treatment and extrapolations principles
Forestry in Norway are based on the report by Timmermann & Dibdiakova (2013). Foreground activity data from Timmermann & Dibdiakova, but otherwise upstream from Ecoinvent v3.6. Silviculture activities based on data from Skogfrøverket, Statistics Norway and Landbruksdirektoratet with 2017 as reference year. Emissions of dinitrogen monoxide with forestry fertilizing are from “Målrettet gjødsling av skog som klimatiltak”, Nibio (2014).
Data collection period
Data set generator
Lars G. F. Tellnes, Johann K. Næss
Access and use restrictions
Open. Send a mail to Silje Unander at sun(a)treteknisk . no for a CSV copy of the whole data set, that is, including the ecoinvent background processes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.